There are 3 main types of learning disorders listed in the DSM-5, each listed below.
Reading Disorder: Dyslexia
Dyslexia is a language-based disability in which a person has trouble with reading accuracy, reading fluency or comprehending when reading sentences/paragraphs. It may also be referred to as reading disability or reading disorder. It is very important when assessing for reading issues to look at all the root issues that may be impacting upon reading including visual processing, auditory processing, working memory and phonological awareness. Accurate diagnosis can lead to a more precise treatment program.
Disorder of Written Expression: Dysgraphia
Dysgraphia is a writing disability in which a person finds it hard to write, spell, or express ideas in writing. When assessing for writing issues it is important to try and determine the precise cognitive skills underlying the weaknesses. Common cognitive weaknesses underlying writing disorders include working memory deficits, executive dysfunction (planning / organisation), phonological awareness and visual self-monitoring.
Dyscalculia: Mathematical Disorder
Dyscalculia is a mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts. When assessing for dyscalculia it is important to try and pinpoint any underlying cognitive deficits that may be creating this type of learning disability. Perceptual issues such as visual-spatial problems can create numeracy issues. Also working memory problems can affects the ability to perform mental calculations. Executive dysfunction can result in having difficulties knowing how to approach a maths problem. Identifying the precise weakness an lead to a more targeted therapeutic approach.